Tuesday, August 31, 2010


World War I
World War I was a military conflict centered on Europe that began in the summer of 1914. The fighting ended in late 1918. This conflict involved most of the world's great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (centred around the Triple Entente) and the Central Powers. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilized in one of the largest wars in history. More than 15 million people were killed, making it also one of the deadliest conflicts in history. The war is also known as the First World War, the Great War, the World War (prior to the outbreak of World War II), and the War to End All Wars.
The assassination on 28 June 1914 of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, is seen as the immediate trigger of the war, though long-term causes, such as imperialistic foreign policies of the great powers of Europe such as the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, the British Empire, France, and Italy played a major role. Ferdinand's assassination at the hands of a Yugoslav nationalist resulted in Habsburg ultimatum against the Kingdom of Serbia. Several alliances that had been formed over the past decades were invoked, so within weeks the major powers were at war; as all had colonies, the conflict soon spread around the world.
The conflict opened with the German invasion of Belgium, Luxembourg and France; the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia and a Russian attack against Prussia. After the German march on Paris was brought to a halt, the Western Front settled into a static battle of attrition with a trench line that changed little until 1917. In the East, the Russian army successfully fought against the Austro-Hungarian forces but was forced back by the German army. Additional fronts opened after the Ottoman Empire joined the war in 1914, Italy and Bulgaria in 1915 and Romania in 1916. The Russian Empire collapsed in 1917, and Russia left the war after the October Revolution later that year. After a 1918 German offensive along the western front, American forces entered the trenches and the German armies were driven back in a series of successful allied offensives. Germany surrendered on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918.
By the war's end, four major imperial powers—the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires—had been militarily and politically defeated, and the last two ceased to exist. The revolutionized Soviet Union emerged from the Russian Empire, while the map of central Europe was completely redrawn into numerous smaller states. The League of Nations was formed in the hope of preventing another such conflict. The European nationalism spawned by the war, the repercussions of Germany's defeat, and of the Treaty of Versailles would eventually lead to the beginning of World War II in 1939.

Triple Alliance (1882)

The Triple Alliance was the military alliance between Germany, Austria–Hungary, and Italy that lasted from 1882 until the start of World War I in 1914. Each member promised mutual support in the event of an attack by any two other great powers, or for Germany and Italy, an attack by France alone. In a supplementary declaration, Italy specified that its undertakings could not be regarded as being directed against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Shortly after renewing the Alliance in June 1902, Italy secretly extended a similar guarantee to France.
When Germany and Austria–Hungary found themselves at war in August 1914 with the rival Triple Entente of Britain, France, and the latter's ally, Russia, Italy pledged its support to the Central Powers, but Italy did not enter into the war because the Triple Alliance was a defensive alliance, and Germany and Austria–Hungary had taken the offensive. Subsequently Italy entered the conflict on the side of the Entente against Austria–Hungary in May 1915 and Germany in August 1916.
Time line
Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and wife assassinated in Sarajevo by Serbian nationalist, Gavrilo Princip (June 28). Austria declares war on Serbia (July 28). Germany declares war on Russia (Aug. 1), on France (Aug. 3), invades Belgium (Aug. 4). Britain declares war on Germany (Aug. 4). Germans defeat Russians in Battle of Tannenberg on Eastern Front (Aug.). First Battle of the Marne (Sept.). German drive stopped 25 miles from Paris. By end of year, war on the Western Front is “positional” in the trenches.
German submarine blockade of Great Britain begins (Feb.). Dardanelles Campaign—British land in Turkey (April), withdraw from Gallipoli (Dec.–Jan. 1916). Germans use gas at second Battle of Ypres (April–May). Lusitania sunk by German submarine—1,198 lost, including 128 Americans (May 7). On Eastern Front, German and Austrian “great offensive” conquers all of Poland and Lithuania; Russians lose 1 million men (by Sept. 6). “Great Fall Offensive” by Allies results in little change from 1914 (Sept.–Oct.). Britain and France declare war on Bulgaria (Oct. 14).
Battle of Verdun—Germans and French each lose about 350,000 men (Feb.). Extended submarine warfare begins (March). British-German sea battle of Jutland (May); British lose more ships, but German fleet never ventures forth again. On Eastern Front, the Brusilov offensive demoralizes Russians, costs them 1 million men (June–Sept.). Battle of the Somme—British lose over 400,000; French, 200,000; Germans, about 450,000; all with no strategic results (July–Nov.). Romania declares war on Austria-Hungary (Aug. 27). Bucharest captured (Dec.).
U.S. declares war on Germany (April 6). Submarine warfare at peak (April). On Italian Front, Battle of Caporetto—Italians retreat, losing 600,000 prisoners and deserters (Oct.–Dec.). On Western Front, Battles of Arras, Champagne, Ypres (third battle), etc. First large British tank attack (Nov.). U.S. declares war on Austria-Hungary (Dec. 7). Armistice between new Russian Bolshevik government and Germans (Dec. 15).
Great offensive by Germans (March–June). Americans' first important battle role at Château-Thierry—as they and French stop German advance (June). Second Battle of the Marne (July–Aug.)—start of Allied offensive at Amiens, St. Mihiel, etc. Battles of the Argonne and Ypres panic German leadership (Sept.–Oct.). British offensive in Palestine (Sept.). Germans ask for armistice (Oct. 4). British armistice with Turkey (Oct.). German Kaiser abdicates (Nov.). Hostilities cease on Western Front (Nov. 11).

World War II

World War II, or the Second World War(often abbreviated as WWII or WW2), was a global military conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945 which involved most of the world's nations, including all of the great powers, organised into two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million military personnel mobilised. In a state of "total war", the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Marked by significant action against civilians, including the Holocaust and the only use of nuclear weapons in warfare, it was the deadliest conflict in human history, and it has been estimated that it resulted in fifty million to over seventy million fatalities.
The war is generally accepted to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and most of the countries of the British Empire and Commonwealth. China and Japan were already at war by this date, whereas other countries that were not initially involved joined the war later in response to events such as the German invasion of the Soviet Union and the Japanese attacks on the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor and on British overseas colonies, which triggered declarations of war on Japan by the United States, the British Commonwealth,and the Netherlands.
The war ended with the total victory of the Allies over Germany and Japan in 1945. World War II left the political alignment and social structure of the world significantly changed. While the United Nations was established to foster international cooperation and prevent future conflicts, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next forty-six years. Meanwhile, the acceptance of the principle of self-determination accelerated decolonization movements in Asia and Africa, while Western Europe began moving toward economic recovery and increased political integration.
Sunday December 7, 1941
Aircraft and midget submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy began an attack on the U.S. The Americans had deciphered Japan's code earlier and knew about a planned attack before it actually occurred. However, due to difficulty in deciphering intercepted messages, the Americans failed to discover Japan's target location before the attack occurred.Under the command of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, the attack was devastating in loss of life and damage to the U.S. fleet. At 06:05 on December 7, the six Japanese carriers launched a first wave of 183 planes composed mainly of dive bombers, horizontal bombers and fighters.The Japanese hit American ships and military installations at 07:51. The first wave attacked military airfields of Ford Island. At 08:30, a second wave of 170 Japanese planes, mostly torpedo bombers, attacked the fleet anchored in Pearl Harbor. The battleship Arizona was hit with an armor piercing bomb which penetrated the forward ammunition compartment, blowing the ship apart and sinking it within seconds. Overall, nine ships of the U.S. fleet were sunk and 21 ships were severely damaged. Three of the 21 would be irreparable. The overall death toll reached 2,350, including 68 civilians, and 1,178 injured. Of the military personnel lost at Pearl Harbor, 1,177 were from the Arizona. The first shots fired were from the destroyer Ward on a midget submarine that surfaced outside of Pearl Harbor; Ward sank the midget sub at approximately 06:55, about an hour before the assault on Pearl Harbor. Japan would lose 29 out of the 350 planes they attacked with.

Triple Entente
The Triple Entente (from French entente [ɑ̃tɑ̃t] "agreement") was the name given to the alliance between the Great Britain, the French Third Republic, and Russia after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente in 1907. The Franco-Russian Alliance, along with the Anglo-Russian Entente and the Entente Cordiale, formed the Triple Entente between the British Empire, France and Russia. This was an effective deterrent to the Triple Alliance of the Central Powers and also a plan by the French to encircle Germany.
The alliance of the three powers, supplemented by various agreements with Portugal, Japan, the United States, and Spain, constituted a powerful counterweight to the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy, the third having concluded an additional secret agreement with France effectively nullifying their alliance commitments.

On August 9, 1945, Nagasaki was the target of the world's second atomic bomb attack (and second plutonium bomb; the first was tested in New Mexico, USA) at 11:02 a.m., when the north of the city was destroyed and an estimated 40,000 people were killed by the bomb nicknamed "Fat Man." According to statistics found within Nagasaki Peace Park, the death toll from the atomic bombing totaled 73,884, as well as another 74,909 injured, and another several hundred thousand diseased and dying due to fallout and other illness caused by radiation.
The city was rebuilt after the war, albeit dramatically changed. New temples were built, as well as new churches due to an increase in the presence of Christianity. Nagasaki is the seat of a Roman Catholic Archdiocese led by Archbishop Joseph Mitsuaki Takami. Some of the rubble was left as a memorial, such as a one-legged torii gate and an arch near ground zero. New structures were also raised as memorials, such as the Atomic Bomb Museum. Nagasaki remains first and foremost a port city, supporting a rich shipping industry and setting a strong example of perseverance and peace.
On January 4, 2005 the towns of Iōjima, Kōyagi, Nomozaki, Sanwa, Sotome and Takashima, all from Nishisonogi District, were merged into Nagasaki.
World War 2 Timeline :
1939 Timeline
Sep 1 - Germany invades Poland, World War 2 begins.
Sep 3 - Britain and France declare war on Germany.
Sep 8 - The US remains neutral but president Roosevelt declares "limited national emergency".
Sep 17 - Russia invades Poland
Sep 27 - Warsaw surrenders
Oct 6 - The last remaining Polish forces surrender
Nov 30 - Russia invades Finland
1940 Timeline
Jan 17 - The first German Enigma messages are decoded by British intelligence
Mar 12 - Russia-Finland war ends. It convinces Hitler that the Russian military is ineffective.
Apr 8 - Germany invades Denmark and Norway.
Apr 14 - British forces land in Narvik, Norway, but leave in 10 days
May 10 - Germany invades France, Holland, Belgium, Luxemburg. Winston Churchill becomes Britain's prime minister.
May 20 - German forces reach the British Channel.
May 27 - Evacuation of British and French forces to Britain at Dunkirk begins.
Jun 4 - The evacuation at Dunkirk ends. 338,000 troops were rescued. Churchill declares that Britain will never surrender.
Jun 9- Norway surrenders
Jun 10 - Italy declares war on the collapsing France and on Britain.
Jun 14 - German troops march into Paris
Jun 18 - Russia invades Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.
Jun 22 - France surrenders
Jun 27 - Russia annexes the eastern regions of Romania.
Jul 1 - Germany invades the British Channel islands.
Jul 10 - The Battle of Britain air campaign begins.
Jul 18 - Churchill declares this is Britain's finest hour.
Aug 8 - The Luftwaffe begins to bomb British early warning radars
Aug 15 - The Luftwaffe loses 76 aircraft in one day
Aug 25 - British night bombers bomb Berlin
Sep 3 - Hitler changes the Luftwaffe's objective from destroying the Royal Air Force to bombing London. This allows the R.A.F to recover and win the battle of Britain.
Sep 13 - Italy invades British-held Egypt from Libya, the North African campaign begins.
Sep 15 - The largest Luftwaffe daytime bombardment, it loses 56 aircraft
Sep 27 - Japan joins The Axis
Oct 7 - German troops enter their Ally Romania, Germany's only source of oil which is threatened by Russia
Oct 12 - Hitler cancels the invasion of Britain.
Oct 23 - Spain rejects Hitler's offer to join the war and remains neutral.
Oct 28 - Italy invades Greece from Albania, but stopped, twice.
Nov 11 - British carrier aircraft sink Italian fleet in Taranto's harbor. Yamamoto in Japan is impressed by their success.
Nov 20 - Hungary and Romania, both military dictatorships, join The Axis.
Dec 9 - British forces in Egypt counter attack the Italians and advance along the Libyan coast
1941 Timeline
Feb 12 - Hitler sends Rommel and the Afrika Korps to help the Italians in North Africa
Mar 1 - Bulgaria joins The Axis. The Axis-Russian border now stretch from the Baltic sea to the black sea.
Mar 3 - Rommel attacks the British forces in North Africa.
Mar 5 - British troops arrive at Greece to support it.
Apr 6 - Germany invades Yugoslavia and Greece
Apr 13 - After military clashes, Japan and Russia sign non-aggression pact.
Apr 17 - Yugoslavia surrenders. British forces evacuate Greek mainland to Crete
Apr 27 - German troops occupy Athens
May 9 - U-boat U-110 is captured with Enigma settings tables
May 20 - German paratroopers and airborne troops invade Crete by air
May 31 - British forces in Crete surrender.
Jun 8 - British forces aided by Israeli volunteers invade French controlled Syria and Lebanon
Jun 22 - Germany invades Russia. Hitler orders "maximum cruelty" against civilians, which results in fanatic Russian resistance.
Jul 3 - Stalin orders the "scorched earth" strategy.
Jul 16 - German army group "Center" takes Smolensk, just 220 miles from Moscow.
Jul 21 - The Luftwaffe bombs Moscow
Jul 24 - Japan invades French Indo-China (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia)
Jul 29 - Hitler, eager to occupy the rich Ukraine first, orders to stop army group Center's advance to Moscow and to transfer its two tank armies to army groups "North" and "South". This is perhaps Hitler's greatest mistake. The German Generals argue in vain against it.
Jul 31 - Hermann Goering orders the SS to prepare "the final solution", the plan to murder the millions of European jews.
Sep 6 - Hitler orders to resume the advance to Moscow, in order to take it "in the limited time before winter". Army group "Center", is given back its two tank armies, plus a third tank army and additional air units.
Sep 15 - The long German siege of Leningrad begins.
Sep 18 - The Germans in the South occupy Kiev and reach the Crimea.
Oct 2 - The final German attack towards Moscow begins (operation Typhoon).
Oct 15 - Rains stop German advance to Moscow due to deep mud which stops both tanks and infantry.
Oct 16 - Russian government leaves Moscow, the Germans occupy Odessa.
Oct 17 - General Tojo becomes Japan's prime minister
Oct 21 - Churchill orders top priority to any request by the Enigma decoders.
Oct 26 - The Germans occupy Kharkov
Nov 15 - With the mud frozen by the dropping temperatures, German advance to Moscow resumes.
Nov 30 - The foremost German forces reach 27km from Moscow, but can advance no further due to strong Russian resistance.
Dec 6 - At temperatures of -34C (-29F) and below, a major Russian counter attack near Moscow begins. Moscow is saved, and the Germans are pushed back.
Dec 7 - The Japanese Navy attacks Pearl Harbor and the Phillipines, and the US joins the war.
With the German failure to defeat Russia, which is marked by their failure to take Moscow, and with the United States joining the war a day later, This date marks the main turning point of World War 2.
Dec 11 - Germany and Italy declare war on the US.
Dec 19 - Hitler orders "fanatic resistance" and appoints himself military commander-in-chief.
1942 Timeline
Jan 2 - Japanese forces occupy Manila
Jan 10 - Japanese forces invades Indonesia
Jan 11 - Japanese forces occupy Malaysia
Jan 12 - Japanese forces invade Burma
Jan 13 - German U-boats begin to sink ships along the US East coast.
Jan 21 - Rommel begins another offensive in North Africa
Jan 25 - Japanese forces invade the Solomon islands
Jan 26 - US troops begin to arrive in Britain
Feb 15 - Singapore surrenders to the Japanese
Mar 20 - "industrial scale" murder of jews by poison gas begins in Nazi death camps.
Apr 18 - Doolittle's raid - US bombers bomb Tokyo.
May 7 - Battle of the Coral Sea. One Japanese carrier and one American carrier are sunk
May 6 - The last American troops in the Phillipines surrender
May 8 - The German spring offensive in southern Russia begins.
Jun 4 - The battle of Midway. Four Japanese carriers are sunk, and one American carrier. Japan's naval superiority is lost.
Jul 3 - Japanese forces land in Guadalcanal
Jul 28 - Stalin forbids further Russian retreats, at any cost.
Aug 7 - US forces land in Guadalcanal
Aug 13 - Montgomery becomes commander of the British 8th army in North Africa
Aug 19 - Allied landing in Dieppe fails.
Aug 23 - The German 6th army reach Stalingrad, the battle of Stalingrad begins.
Sep 6 - The German advance in Stalingrad is stopped.
Sep 23 - The battle of El Alamein in North Africa begins.
Nov 8 - Allied forces land in western North Africa, at Rommel's back
Nov 19 - The Russian flanking counter attack around Stalingrad begins
Dec 19 - The Germans fail to break the encirclement of their army in Stalingrad
1943 Timeline
Feb 2 - The last German forces in Stalingrad surrender
May 13 - The long North Africa campaign ends. The Allies control North Africa
May 22 - 41 German U-boats sunk in 3 weeks. Doenitz retreats all U-boats from the North atlantic
Jul 5 - The battle of Kursk begins
Jul 10 - The Allies invade Sicily
Jul 25 - Mussolini is replaced and arrested.
Aug 10 - The Germans know the Enigma was decoded, but believe the new types and procedures are safe again.
Sep 3 - The Allies invade Italy's mainland
Sep 8 - Italy surrenders. The German forces in northern and central Italy occupy it
Sep 25 - The Russians liberate Smolensk
Oct - Allied anti submarine bases established in the Azores, in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean
Nov 6 - The Russians liberate Kiev
Nov 19 - The Marines land in Tarawa
Nov - Rommel takes command of the "atlantic wall" in the French coast
Dec - P-51 fighters provide all-the-way long range escort to bombers over Germany
1944 Timeline
Jan 16 - Eisenhower becomes supreme commander of western allies forces
Jan 22 - Allies land in Anzio, Italy
Mar - The Russians advance into the Ukraine
Apr 10 - The Russians liberate Odessa
May - Allied bombers begin to concentrate on the German fuel industry
Jun 5 - The German Navy's Enigma messages are decoded almost in real time.
Jun 6 - D-Day. American, British, Canadian forces invade France at the beaches of Normandy
Jun 12 - 1st German V-1 cruise missile attack on Britain
Jun 15 - The Marines land in Saipan
Jun 19 - Battle of the Phillipine sea
Jun 22 - The Russians advance to Belarus
Jun 27 - Cherburg is liberated
Jul 20 - Hitler survives an assassination attempt by senior German officers with light wounds.
Jul 21 - Hitler appoints General Guderian to chief of the army (OKH). The Marines land in Guam
Jul 24 - The Marines land in Tinian
Jul 28 - The Russians reach the old German-Russian border in central Poland
Jul 30 - Patton breaks out of the beachhead deep into France
Aug 1 - Warsaw revolts against the Germans
Aug 15 - The Allies land in southern France
Aug 23 - Romania surrenders to the Russians. Its oil fields were Germany's only source of natural oil
Aug 25 - Paris is liberated.
Aug - Allied fighters achieve air superiority over Germany
Sep 6 - Finland and Bulgaria surrenders to the Russians
Sep 8 - 1st German V-2 ballistic missile attack on Britain
Sep 17 - Operation Market Garden in Holland
Oct 5 - British forces land in Greece
Oct 10 - The Germans evacuate Riga, Latvia
Oct 14 - Athens is liberated
Oct 20 - The Marines land in Leyte, in the Philippines. In response, the Japanese Navy begins to use Kamikaze suicide pilots.
Nov 14 - B-29 bombers begin to bomb Tokyo from bases in the Mariana islands
Dec 16 - The German attack in the Ardennes begin
1945 Timeline
Jan 9 - The Marines land in Luzon in the Philippines
Jan 23 - The Russians reach Germany itself at the Oder river
Jan 27 - The Russians liberate the Auschwitz death camp
Jan 28 - The Ardennes campaign ends
Feb 13 - The Russians occupy Budapest, Hungary. Dresden bombed.
Feb 19 - The Marines land in Iwo Jima
Mar 4 - Manila is liberated
Mar 6 - The Allies occupy Cologne, Germany
Mar 7 - US forces cross the Rhine on the Remagen bridge
Mar 16 - The battle of Iwo Jima ends
Mar 27 - V-2 missile attacks end
Apr 1 - German forces encircled in the Ruhr by the Americans
Apr 6 - The Marines land in Okinawa. Japan orders all its forces to use Kamikaze suicide tactic
Apr 7 - The super battleship Yamato is sunk on its way to a Kamikaze fight in Okinawa
Apr 10 - The Allies occupy Hannover
Apr 11 - The Allies liberate the Buchenwald death camp
Apr 12 - President Roosevelt dies.
Apr 13 - The Russians enter Vienna
Apr 16 - The Russians begin final advance to Berlin
Apr 25 - American and Russian forces meet
Apr 26 - German defense in northern Italy finally collapse
Apr 29 - Mussolini is executed by the Italian resistance. The Allies liberate the Dachau death camp
Apr 30 - Adolf Hitler commits suicide in his bunker in Berlin. He appoints Admiral Doenitz as his successor.
May 8 - Germany surrenders. The war in Europe ends
May 28 - 450 B-29 bombers bomb Yokohama
Jun 2 - 660 B-29 bombers bomb Japanese cities
Jun 21 - Battle of Okinawa ends
Jul 16 - the US tests the atomic bomb in New Mexico. It works
Aug 6 - Hiroshima is destroyed by an atomic bomb
Aug 8 - Russia declares war on Japan
Aug 9 - Nagasaki is destroyed by an atomic bomb
Aug 14 - Japan surrenders. World War 2 finally ends.

Sunday, August 29, 2010

Arithmetic progression






This table is mathematical question. There are five rows and five columns in this question each row and column are in an arithmetic progression. In the first column zero is the 1st term and in second column 119 is the 4th term likewise in others. In the first row zero is the 1st term and in second 93 is the 3rd term and likewise in others. There are arithmetic progressions in horizontal way and vertical way.  This question is to find the answer in the column which is typed with “?”.
To clear doubt about this question mail me on akshaips@gmail.com